Within the for every circumstances, all the questions worried about both face-to-deal with and online relationships

Within the for every circumstances, all the questions worried about both face-to-deal with and online relationships


So you’re able to gauge the size of the network out-of face-to-deal with family unit members, stuff on Happiness Survey Screen (Helliwell and Huang, 2013) were utilized: “Everything exactly how many loved ones have you got?.” That it question try responded on a level of just one lower than 5 members of the family so you’re able to 5 more fifty household members. Issue to evaluate how big online pal systems try similar (Helliwell and you can Huang, 2013): “As much as how many friends do you have to the Facebook?” however the impulse measure was various other, senior match online anywhere between step one less than fifty to eight over a thousand.

All the questions for the quality of relationships used in the fresh new European Social Survey have been adjusted to evaluate top-notch deal with-to-deal with an internet-based friendships. All the questions had been: “Just how many individuals are you experiencing having whom you can be explore intimate and private issues?” and “Exactly how many of these individuals was your own Myspace family relations?.” The newest response scale varied from 1 (none) to help you eight (10 or even more).

A principle components analysis with an oblique rotation was performed on the four friendship items. Examination of the Kaiser–Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO = 0.511) and of the Bartlett’s test of sphericity (? 2 (6) = , p 2 (30) = ; p = 0.001) and Facebook friends’ observed variables (? 2 (49) = ; p = 0.003) are related to each other. Factor scores were used as indexes of friendship in the analyses.


So you’re able to assess health, plus the detected wellness item often utilized in global studies (e.g., Eriksson ainsi que al., 2001 – “How will you price your quality of life generally” which have answers on an excellent 5-part level, ranging from decent so you can terrible) the new five pieces of the latest future health measurement of your own Condition regarding Wellness Survey SF-36 (Ware and you will Sherbourne, 1992) was in fact included. An example of all the questions is: “I seem to become ill a tiny convenient than other people.” These products were responded towards good 5-part size, between step one certainly not the case so you can 5 certainly true. The five issues exhibited an acceptable accuracy (? = 0.72) while the average of your own five points try computed given that sign regarding worry about-reported future health.

Psychological state is reviewed through five circumstances in the SF-36 (Ware and you will Sherbourne, 1992). An example was “How frequently maybe you’ve felt most nervous during the last cuatro months?.” These inquiries was indeed answered toward a great 5-section level, ranging from not to ever constantly. Given that number of inner texture of the things that is good (? = 0.80), brand new indication of psychological state is actually calculated, averaging the fresh new solutions to the five issues.

The assessment of subjective well-being was performed with two items (r = 0.722; p 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (35) = ; p 1 (Figure 1). More specifically, we tested whether bridging and bonding social capital mediated the relationships among face-to-face friendship and health, as the direct pathway between Facebook friends and health proved not to be significant, ? = 0.09, p = 0.192. Age, gender, education, subjective SES, self-esteem, and living alone effects were controlled. Missing data were handled with listwise deletion.

The direct pathway between face-to-face friendship and health was totally mediated by bonding and bridging social capital. For the mediation of bonding, we found significant paths between friendship and bonding, ? = 0.18, t = 5.59, p 2 (6) = , p 2 (64) = ; p 2 (64) = ; p 2 /DF 0.95; CFI > 0.95; RMSEA 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p = 0.039] and close friends [? 2 (30) = ; p = 0.028] than the older participants. The other side of the coin reveals that 9.8% of the respondents claimed to have less than five friends and around 8% affirmed having no close friends at all. Regarding older participants, aged 55 years or above, 8.3% referred to not having anyone to speak to about intimate issues and 9.9% indicated having only one intimate friend.

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